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Науковедение — Science studies is an interdisciplinary research area that seeks to situate scientific expertise in broad social, historical, and philosophical contexts. It uses various methods to analyze the production, representation and reception of scientific knowledge, similar as in cultural studies, science studies are defined by the subject of their research and encompass a large range of different theoretical and methodological perspectives and practices.

The interdisciplinary approach may include and borrow methods from the humanities, natural and formal sciences, Science studies have a certain importance for evaluation and science policy.

The field added technology in the last decade, and using science, technology and society, started to involve the interaction of expert, the field started with a tendency toward navel-gazing, it was extremely self-conscious in its genesis and applications. Beyond a mere study of scientific discourse, it started to deal with all of its participants, relation of science expertise to politics. Semiotic studies of processes, as in the discovery, conceptualization.

Or the interaction and management of different forms of knowledge in cooperative research, large scale research and research institutions, e. Science is not democratic per se, neither is sound science restricted to democracies, Science has become a major force in Western democratic societies, which depend on innovation and technology but need as well to address its risks. Beliefs about science can be different from those of the scientists themselves, for reasons of e.

The designation of expertise as authoritative in the interaction with lay people and it is rather difficult for scientists themselves to develop and communicate in interdisciplinary contexts, as this sort of Interactional expertise is a separate kind of knowledge.

Maria Ossowska and Stanislaw Ossowski started to introduce the concept in the s, thomas Kuhns Structure of Scientific Revolutions led to an increased interest in not only the history of science, but also its philosophical underpinnings. Kuhns work established that the history of science was less a succession of discoveries.

Paradigms are broader, socio-intellectual constructs that determine which types of claims are permissible. Sociology of scientific knowledge developed at the University of Edinburgh, where David Bloor, the strong programme proposed that both true and false scientific theories should be treated the same way.

Both are caused by factors or conditions, such as cultural context. All human knowledge, as something that exists in the human cognition and it proved however difficult to address natural science topics with sociologist methods, as proven by the US science wars. The use of an approach on natural sciences risked to endanger not only the hard facts of natural sciences. The view on knowledge production as a social construct was not easily accepted.

История науки — The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural sciences and social sciences. Historiography of science, in contrast, studies the methods by which historians study the history of science, the English word scientist is relatively recent—first coined by William Whewell in the 19th century.

Previously, people investigating nature called themselves natural philosophers, traditionally, historians of science have defined science sufficiently broadly to include those earlier inquiries.

In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in an oral tradition, for example, the domestication of maize for agriculture has been dated to about 9, years ago in southern Mexico, before the development of writing systems.

Similarly, archaeological evidence indicates the development of knowledge in preliterate societies. The development of writing enabled knowledge to be stored and communicated across generations with much greater fidelity, many ancient civilizations collected astronomical information in a systematic manner through simple observation.

Though they had no knowledge of the physical structure of the planets and stars. Basic facts about human physiology were known in places.

Considerable observation of flora and fauna was also performed. Ancient Egypt made significant advances in astronomy, mathematics and medicine and their development of geometry was a necessary outgrowth of surveying to preserve the layout and ownership of farmland, which was flooded annually by the Nile river. The right triangle and other rules of geometry were used to build structures. Egypt was also a center of research for much of the Mediterranean. However, while Egyptian medicine had some practices, it was not without its ineffective.

Medical historians believe that ancient Egyptian pharmacology, for example, was largely ineffective, E. Lloyd played a significant role in the development of this methodology. The Ebers papyrus also contains evidence of traditional empiricism, from their beginnings in Sumer around BC, the Mesopotamian people began to attempt to record some observations of the world with numerical data.

But their observations and measurements were taken for purposes other than for elucidating scientific laws. A concrete instance of Pythagoras law was recorded, as early as the 18th century BC, dated BC, possibly millennia before Pythagoras, but an abstract formulation of the Pythagorean theorem was not.

In Babylonian astronomy, records of the motions of the stars, planets, even today, astronomical periods identified by Mesopotamian proto-scientists are still widely used in Western calendars such as the solar year and the lunar month. Альма-матер — Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college. In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, the phrase is variously translated as nourishing mother, nursing mother, or fostering mother, suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students.

Before its modern usage, Alma mater was a title in Latin for various mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele. The source of its current use is the motto, Alma Mater Studiorum, of the oldest university in continuous operation in the Western world and it is related to the term alumnus, denoting a university graduate, which literally means a nursling or one who is nourished. The phrase can also denote a song or hymn associated with a school, although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele, Venus, and other mother goddesses, it was not frequently used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin.

Alma Redemptoris Mater is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary, the earliest documented English use of the term to refer to a university is in , when University of Cambridge printer John Legate began using an emblem for the universitys press.

In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in , many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name.

The University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses, outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba.

In January Webometrics Ranking KPI made it into top 1, — taking th place out of 20, universities, the institute was founded in At that time it had four departments, Mechanical, Chemical, Agricultural, the first enrolment constituted students. It was largely due to Kyrpychovs efforts that such professors like V. P, konovalov or Vladimir Zworykin became members of the first faculty. The Kiev campus of the university is located near the city centre in a named after the university.

Here almost 9, of non-Kievite students are accommodated in 21 dormitories,3 of them for married students, the life conditions at the university domes is a matter of numerous complaints of their inhabitants usually living in an 18 square meters rooms by 4 people in the room.

The institute has an outpatient medical department for employers and students, the Institute also considers organized leisure a very important factor in bringing up young specialists. The Knowledge Square is the centre of the entire KPI complex, the Knowledge square is connected to one of the main city streets - Peremoha avenue.

Meetings, festivals, and graduation ceremonies take place at the square, the University also has an assembly hall with 1, seats. It was opened in August , various sport facilities also exist at the institute. There are training grounds, soccer fields, volleyball and basketball courts at student disposal, there are many nationally rated athletes among the students of this institute. Among them there are Academicians and Corresponding Members of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Professors, the language of instruction is predominantly Ukrainian, with options of Russian and English also available.

Approximately of them are international students, in this way students, especially those who live in a hostel, have a social life with their foreign fellow students and a chance to learn more about other cultures, people and ideas. Профессор — Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Literally, professor derives from Latin as a person who professes being usually an expert in arts or sciences, in much of the world, the unqualified word professor is used formally to indicate the highest academic rank, informally known as full professor.

Professors conduct original research and commonly teach undergraduate, graduate, or professional courses in their fields of expertise, in universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation. Professors typically hold a Ph.

The term professor was first used in the late 14th century to one who teaches a branch of knowledge. As a title that is prefixed to a name, it dates from , the hort form prof is recorded from The term professor is used with a different meaning, ne professing religion. This canting use of the word comes down from the Elizabethan period, a professor is an accomplished and recognized academic.

In most Commonwealth nations, as well as northern Europe, the professor is the highest academic rank at a university. In the United States and Canada, the title of professor is also the highest rank, in these areas, professors are scholars with doctorate degrees or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and universities.

An emeritus professor is a given to selected retired professors with whom the university wishes to continue to be associated due to their stature. Emeritus professors do not receive a salary, but they are often given office or lab space, and use of libraries, labs, the term professor is also used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions in some European countries. In Australia, the associate professor is used in place of reader, ranking above senior lecturer.

However, such professors usually do not undertake academic work for the granting institution, in general, the title of professor is strictly used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis. Other roles of professorial tasks depend on the institution, its legacy, protocols, place, a professor typically earns a base salary and a range of benefits.

In addition, a professor who undertakes additional roles in her institution earns additional income, some professors also earn additional income by moonlighting in other jobs, such as consulting, publishing academic or popular press books, or giving speeches or coaching executives. The salaries of civil servant professors in Spain are fixed in a basis, but there are some bonus related to performance and seniority. Донецкая область — Donetsk Oblast is an oblast of eastern Ukraine.

It is the most populated oblast, with around 4. Historically, the region is an important part of the Donbas region, until November , it bore the name Stalino Oblast, as its capital Donetsk was named Stalino in honour of Joseph Stalin at that time.

The oblast is known for its urban sprawl and is associated with mining industry. Subsequently, the War in Donbass started, after Donetsk was under control of the separatist government, the Donetsk Oblast administration was relocated to Mariupol, and later to Kramatorsk. Before the establishment of the first Donetsk Oblast, three districts existed on its territory from to , the Donetsk Governorate was terminated in As part of Soviet Ukraine, Donetsk Oblast was established on 2 July out of Kharkiv Oblast, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, artemivsk served as the oblasts administrative center for two weeks until 16 July , when the city of Stalino took on the role.

During the Nazi German occupation from fall to fall , as part of de-Stalinization in the Soviet Union, in Stalino along with Stalino Oblast were renamed into Donetsk and Donetsk Oblast, respectively.

During the dissolution of the Soviet Union, In the mids the region known for its heightened criminal activity, including the killings of high-profile business people such as Akhat Bragin. In Ukraine lost control over its border with Russia in Donetsk Oblast, currently, portions of the region are being controlled by the Novorossiya Armed Forces and claimed by the self-proclaimed Donetsk Peoples Republic.

Donetsk Oblast is located in southeastern Ukraine, the area of the oblast, comprises about 4. Its longitude from north to south is km, from east to west — km, the state historic-architectural preserve near the city of Sviatohirsk with the Sviatohirsk Lavra was nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine. The province is divided into 18 raions and 28 municipalities of equal status.

These are listed below with their areas and populations, the provinces secondary division consists of various municipalities that are governed by their councils. Those municipalities may consist of one or more populated places, all are administratively subordinate to the raion in which they are located.

Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии. В Википедии есть статьи о других людях с такой фамилией, см. Добров ; Добров, Геннадий Михайлович. Статьи с переопределением значения из Викиданных Википедия: Статьи об учёных без портретов Википедия: Статьи с нерабочими ссылками. By , the population consisted of 28, people, There were two hospitals with beds, four secondary and two vocational schools, six single-class schools, four parish schools, and a private library 2.

Most moved to Kharkiv and received the support of the eastern Ukrainian cities, later, this move was regarded as a mistake by some of the Peoples Commissars 3. On 25 December , Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states 4. On the map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, in the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia 5.

Еретиков не лишали жизни, как при Сталине, но ломали ее основательно. Этот слой людей был социальной опорой догматизма и застоя. Социологию в стране возрождали ученые, пришедшие в нее из различных областей знания, — историки, экономисты, философы, правоведы, математики, инженеры. Социологии повезло в том отношении, что интерес к ней привлек талантливых людей, ставших лидерами формировавшегося социологического научного сообщества.

При этом им пришлось преодолевать сопротивление догматически настроенных руководителей, стоявших у руля общественных наук и стремившихся подчинить себе также и нарождающуюся область знания. С развитием социологии пробуждался интерес к социальным исследованиям науки, анализу взаимоотношений науки и общества, науки и производства. Принципиальное значение в информационном обеспечении этих исследований как и общественных наук в целом имело появление Института научной информации по общественным наукам.

Выпускаемые им реферативные сборники, переводы, аналитические материалы знакомили специалистов и научную общественность с мировым потоком литературы в данной области знания. В фундаментальной работе Г.

Барбер пишет, что это направление находится в состоянии застоя [3, с. Можно сослаться также на авторитетное высказывание Н. Но все-таки пользовавшиеся научным авторитетом на Западе исследования по социологии науки в рамках структурно-функциональной социологии имеются в виду Р.

Мертон и его школа показывали, что данное понимание социологии науки завоевывает себе место под солнцем. В СССР это направление считалось главным образом материалом для критики, хотя, конечно, литература школы Мертона изучалась и определенное влияние оказывала. На этом фоне отчетливо выделились те импульсы к развитию исследования науки в СССР, которые исходили от Д. Бернал в г.

Этот сборник сыграл значительную роль в стимулировании социальных исследований науки вообще и в СССР, в частности. Он показал советским читателям, какое важное значение выдающиеся ученые нашего времени придают такого рода исследованиям. Привлекла внимание также идея Прайса о развитии науки как естественном процессе, который подчиняется количественным закономерностям и может изучаться методами естествознания.

Из многих возможных вариантов: Симпозиум собрал большие научные силы. В нем приняли участие Б. Польскую сторону представляли И. Сотрудничество с польскими учеными помогло определиться новому направлению исследований в нашей стране и в этом смысле было весьма плодотворным.

Здесь оно опиралось на достаточно давнюю традицию, идущую еще от Ф. И в дальнейшем сотрудничество с польскими науковедами и историками науки было довольно интенсивным вплоть до конца х гг. Автор этого термина, И. Боричевский, обозначил им будущую теорию науки. Для участников симпозиума было очевидно, что такой единой теории науки пока не существует. Вопрос заключался в том, как определить границы науковедения, его современное состояние и перспективы.

Родный считали, что науковедение представляет собой комплексную науку о взаимодействии различных аспектов изучаемого предмета, синтезирующую знания о нем. Копнин вообще отрицал возможность существования такой комплексной науки. Для него науковедение — просто федерация различных дисциплин, изучающих науку. Добров связывал науковедение с разработкой информационного подхода к науке. В дальнейшем он несколько изменил свою позицию и стал рассматривать науковедение как объединяющее название для комплекса дисциплин [26, с.

Сформулированная Боричевским задача создания единой теории науки в новых условиях фактически определилась как сверхзадача, хотя и была выражена наивно-оптимистическая надежда на достаточно быстрое ее решение.

На симпозиуме и в дальнейшем обсуждении выдвигались различные варианты построения этой единой теории науки. Многие полагали, что она должна быть философской и строиться на основе теории познания. Копнин в качестве основы единой теории науки предлагал использовать логику науки [38], Б.

Кедров — историю науки [25], С. Микулинский — сумму науковедческих дисциплин [46], И. Майзель — социологию науки [43, с. Ярошевский справедливо утверждал, что науковедение возникает на стыке различных самостоятельных дисциплин и объединяет их в той мере, в какой они делают своим предметом науку, формируя тем самым новый синтез понятий и методов, придавая им специфическую направленность [82].

В общем, вопрос так решен и не был, участники дискуссии не пришли к согласию. Сейчас все эти споры выглядят, может быть, несколько схоластическими, ибо разные трактовки предмета и методов науковедения выделили лишь различные аспекты изучения науки. Появление науковедения стимулировало ее изучение.