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Так, об октябрьских событиях в Москве и Петрограде стало известно только через две недели. В местных советах преобладали эсеры.
Гамов созвал Войсковой Казачий круг, который вынес резолюцию о непризнании советской власти. В отряды милиции вливались юнкера из разгромленных большевиками юнкерских училищ в Иркутске, из других городов. К началу марта года в распоряжении КОП было до бойцов, три орудия и четыре пулемёта.
Первым действием стало блокирование здания, в котором располагался исполком Совета, и арест его членов-большевиков. В течение суток восставшие захватили склады оружия, заняли административные учреждения, почтамт, телеграф, телефонную станцию и железнодорожный вокзал, разоружили местный советизированный гарнизон и часть красногвардейцев, а также установили заслон на переправе через реку Зея.
Вооружённое сопротивление оказали только моряки Амурской флотилии, но они были быстро вытеснены из города . Одновременно в Астрахановку начали прибывать подкрепления из числа железнодорожных рабочих, а также крестьян из окрестных деревень: Гамов повёл наступление на Астрахановку и попытался установить контроль над Амурской железной дорогой, двинув бронепоезд к станции Бочкарёво , но атака была отбита. После этого стороны заключили перемирие на 48 часов.
Красные использовали эту передышку для пополнения своих сил . Для общего руководства действиями прибыли члены Дальневосточного краевого исполкома Советов М. Общее количество красных достигло 10—12 тысяч человек . Но руководители восстания отказались, надеясь продержаться до прихода помощи из Забайкалья и Маньчжурии, где готовились белогвардейские отряды. Более 80 офицеров уже прибыли из Сахаляна Хэйхэ в Благовещенск.
В городе было введено осадное положение, объявлена всеобщая мобилизация, увеличившая силы восставших до 8 тысяч бойцов .
Таким образом, наметился полуторный перевес в силах у большевиков. Одному из красногвардейских отрядов удалось незаметно переправиться по замерзшему руслу реки Зеи и выйти в тыл оборонявшимся, что решило исход боя. Особенно упорный бой шёл за последний оплот оборонявшихся — Благовещенский железнодорожный вокзал. В упорном бою погибло или было ранено до половины его защитников .
Остатки восставших, в том числе и сам И. В боях с обеих сторон погибло не менее человек в том числе 92 красногвардейца . Гражданская война в России — The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of , as many factions vied to determine Russias political future. In addition, rival militant socialists and nonideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites, eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces and the pro-German armies.
Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into Armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until , there were an estimated 7,, —12,, casualties during the war, mostly civilians.
The Russian Civil War has been described by some as the greatest national catastrophe that Europe had yet seen, many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war. After the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the Russian Provisional Government was established during the February Revolution of , Political commissars were appointed to each unit of the army to maintain morale and ensure loyalty.
In June , when it became apparent that an army composed solely of workers would be far too small. Former Tsarist officers were utilized as military specialists, sometimes their families were taken hostage in order to ensure their loyalty, at the start of the war three-quarters of the Red Army officer corps was composed of former Tsarist officers. More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno, some of the military forces were set up on the basis of clandestine officers organizations in the cities.
The Czechoslovak Legions had been part of the Russian army and numbered around 30, troops by October and they had an agreement with the new Bolshevik government to be evacuated from the Eastern Front via the port of Vladivostok to France. The transport from the Eastern Front to Vladivostok slowed down in the chaos, under pressure from the Central Powers, Trotsky ordered the disarming and arrest of the legionaries, which created tensions with the Bolsheviks.
The Western Allies armed and supported opponents of the Bolsheviks, hence, many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites, including the provision of troops and supplies.
Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be strangled in its cradle, the British and French had supported Russia during World War I on a massive scale with war materials. After the treaty, it looked like much of material would fall into the hands of the Germans. Under this pretext began allied intervention in the Russian Civil War with the United Kingdom, there were violent clashes with troops loyal to the Bolsheviks.
Благовещенск — Blagoveshchensk is a city and the administrative center of Amur Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Amur and Zeya Rivers, opposite to the Chinese city of Heihe. The early residents of both sides of the Amur in the region of todays Blagoveshchensk were the Daurs and Duchers, the Grodekovo site is thought by archaeologists to have been populated since ca.
As the Russians tried to assert their control over the region, since , the Manchus re-used the site for their fort, which served in as a base for the Manchus campaign against the Russian fort of Albazin further north.
The series of conflicts between Russians and Manchus ended with Russias recognition of the Chinese sovereignty over both sides of the Amur by the Nerchinsk Treaty of As the balance of power in the region has changed by the midth century, according to Blagoveshchensk authorities, by the city had some 8, residents, with merely 15 foreigners among them. According to the Orthodox belief, the city was saved by a miraculous icon of Our Lady of Albazin.
On July 3, a decision was made by the citys Police Chief Batarevich, as the cross-river shipping was interrupted by the rebellion, a question arose how to get them from the Russian side of the Amur to the Chinese side. Batarevich suggested that the deportees could be first taken east of the Zeya, as the local ataman refused to provide the deportees with boats to take them across the river, few of them made it to the Chinese side.
The rest drowned in the Amur, or were shot or axed by the police, Cossacks and local volunteers, according to Chinese sources, about 5, people reportedly died during these events of July 4—8, The expulsion of local Chinese caused some hardships for Blagoveshchensk consumers, not a Chinaman escaped, except forty who were employed by a leading foreign merchant who ransomed their lives at a thousand roubles each.
These, and many even worse, atrocities are remembered and now is their moment for revenge, so it was easy for Japan to enlist the sympathy of these men, especially when emphasized by liberal pay, as is now the case. It is believed more than 10, of these bandits, divided into companies of from to each. The city was also the site of conflict during the Russian Civil War, from until , the city was declared part of the Far Eastern Republic, an area which was nominally independent, but in reality a buffer zone under control of the Russian SFSR.
The city became the center of Amur Oblast in During the Cultural Revolution the city was subject to Maoist propaganda blasted from loudspeakers across the river 24 hours a day, on August 1, Blagoveshchensk was hit by an F2 tornado.
The tornado claimed one life and injured twenty-eight people, damage costs are estimated at 80 million rubles. Хэйхэ — Heihe is a prefecture-level city of northern Heilongjiang province, China, located on the Russian border, on the south bank of the Heilong Jiang, across the river from Blagoveshchensk. Heihe has an population of about ,, while the total population of the prefecture-level city is 1,, Heihe, formerly Aihui or Aigun, is one of the five oldest cities in Heilongjiang, along with Tsitsihar, Yilan, Acheng.
Human beings started to settle in Heihe region as early as the Paleolithic Age, later it became home to local tribes. During the Qing Dynasty, Heihe was the first place troops sent to Heilongjiang were stationed, the predecessor of todays Heihe was the town established by the indigenous Ducher people of the Amur Valley in the mid s. It was established some 30 km south of the city site and was known as Aigun, Heilongjiang.
After the Ducher were evacuated by the Qing to the Sungari or Hurka in the s, however, in the Manchus re-used the site as a base for their campaign against the Russian fort of Albazin. Aigun was the capital of Heilongjiang from to , before the capital was moved to Nenjiang.
After the capture of Albazin in or , the Qing governor relocated the town to a new site on the bank of the Amur. The new site occupied the location of the village of the Daurian chief named Tolga. The city became known primarily under its Manchu name Saghalien Ula hoton and Chinese name Heilongjiang Cheng, later the governor office was transferred to Qiqihar.
However, Aigun remained the seat of the Deputy Lieutenant-General, responsible for a district covering much of the Amur Valley within the province of Heilongjiang as it existed in those days.
The Aigun Treaty was concluded at Aigun in , according to this treaty, the left bank of the Amur River was conceded to Czarist Russia.
After Xinhai Revolution, Aigun became the county seat of the newly created Aigun County by the Republic of China, on November 15,, Heihe City was established, administering two county-level cities and three counties including Beian, Wudalianchi, Nenjiang, Sunwu and Sunke. The Whites had the aim of bringing about law and order and the salvation of Russia, fighting against traitors, barbarians. They worked to remove Soviet organizations and functionaries in White-controlled territory, overall, the White Army was nationalistic, rejected ethnic particularism and separatism.
The White Army generally believed in a united multinational Russia, amongst White Army members, anti-Semitism was widespread. Western sponsors expressed dismay at this, especially as the Bolsheviks had prohibited anti-Semitism, many of the White leaders were conservative, accepting autocracy while remaining suspicious of politics. Aside from being anti-Bolshevik and patriotic, the Whites had no set ideology or main leader, the White Armies did acknowledge a single provisional head of state, the so-called Supreme Governor of Russia, but this post was prominent only under the leadership of Admiral Alexander Kolchak.
The movement had no set plan for foreign policy, Whites differed on policies toward Germany, the Whites wanted to keep from alienating any potential supporters and allies, and thus saw an exclusively monarchist position as a detriment to their cause and recruitment. White-movement leaders such as Anton Denikin advocated for Russians to create their own government, Admiral Alexander Kolchak succeeded in creating a temporary wartime government in Omsk, acknowledged by most other White leaders, only for it to fall with the loss of his armies.
Some warlords who were aligned with the White movement, such as Grigory Semyonov and Roman Ungern von Sternberg, did not acknowledge any authority, consequently, the White movement had no set political leanings, members could be monarchists, republicans, rightists, Kadets, etc. But depending on the time and place, those White Army supporters might also exchange right-wing allegiance for allegiance to the Red Army, the Volunteer Army in South Russia became the most prominent and the largest of the various and disparate White forces.
Starting off as a small and well-organized military in January , the Kuban Cossacks joined the White Army, and conscription of both peasants and Cossacks began. In late February ,4, soldiers under the command of General Aleksei Kaledin were forced to retreat from Rostov-on-Don due to the advance of the Red Army, in the Don Cossacks joined and the Army began drafting Ukrainian peasants.
In that year, between May and October, the Volunteer Army grew from 64, to , soldiers and was better supplied than its Red counterpart. The White Armys rank-and-file comprised active anti-Bolsheviks, such as Cossacks, nobles, the White movement had access to various naval forces, both sea-going and river-based.
The Russian ace Alexander Kazakov operated within this unit, the White movements leaders and first members came mainly from the ranks of military officers. Many came from outside the nobility, such as generals Mikhail Alekseev, the White generals never mastered administration, they often utilized prerevolutionary functionaries or military officers with monarchististic inclinations for administering White-controlled regions. Канонерская лодка — In the age of sail, a gunboat was usually a small undecked vessel carrying a single smoothbore cannon in the bow, or just two or three such cannons.
A gunboat could carry one or two masts or be oar-powered only, but the version of about 15 m length was most typical.
Some types of gunboat carried two cannons, or else mounted a number of guns on the railings. The gun that such boats carried could be heavy, a pounder for instance. All navies of the era kept a number of gunboats on hand. Gunboats saw extensive use in the Baltic Sea during the late 18th century as they were well-suited for the extensive coastal skerries and archipelagoes of Sweden, Finland and Russia.
The rivalry between Sweden and Russia in particular led to an expansion of gunboat fleets and the development of new gunboat types.
The majority of these were developed from the s and onwards by the naval architect Fredrik Henrik af Chapman for the Swedish archipelago fleet. The designs, copied and refined by the rival Danish and Russian navies, spread to the Mediterranean, British ships engaged larger 22 m Russian gunboats off Turku in southeast Finland in during the Crimean War.
The Russian vessels had the distinction of being the last oared vessels of war in history to fire their guns in anger, Gunboats played a key role in Napoleon Bonapartes plan for the invasion of England in Denmark-Norway used them heavily in the Gunboat War, between and the United States Navy had a policy of basing its navy on coastal gunboats, experimenting with a variety of designs.
President Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party opposed a strong navy and they proved useless against the British blockade during the War of With the introduction of power in the early 19th century. Initially, these vessels retained full sailing rigs and used steam engines for auxiliary propulsion, the British Royal Navy deployed two wooden paddle-gunboats in the Lower Great Lakes and St. Conradi shipyards in Kiel built the steam-powered long tons gunboat in for the navy of Schleswig-Holstein.
Амурские казаки — The Amur Cossack Host, a Cossack host created in the Amur region and Primorye in the s on the basis of the Cossacks relocated from the Transbaikal region and freed miners of Nerchinsk region.
The first Cossack stanitsa was created in , a decree announcing the creation of the Amur Cossack Host was issued in Initially the host was subordinate to the governor of the Amur Oblast. In it became responsible to the governor of the Amur Oblast, subsequently the Amur Cossack army became the responsibility of the Governor-General of the Amur region and the Commander of the armies of the military district of the Amur region.
The Amur Cossacks possessed 5,8 million desyatinas of land, the Cossack population numbered 49, people. In times of peace, the Amur Cossack Host supplied 1 mounted regiment and 1 platoon of local guards, in times of war this contribution expanded to two mounted regiments,1 platoon of guards,5 special and 1 reserve sotnyas and 1 infantry battalion. The distinguishing colour of the Amur Cossack Host was yellow, worn on the cap bands, high fleece hats were worn on occasion with yellow cloth tops.
А приведённый англовариант всё же о другом. Но это развод только читателей, а писателей никак не касается? Ну, кроме путаницы фамилий, конечно.
Link Reply Parent Thread. Думаю, что здесь и писатели в проигрыше. Ведь не зря есть поговорка: Это как с чужой книжки со считалками о Кларе и кораллах, которую мне в интернет-магазинах приписали и я пока не могу избавиться. Сейчас она опять там висит. Это касается некоторых писателей из тех, что есть в Википедии. Я "проверила" своих знакомых и получила рекламу книги о моей подруге Дине Телевицкой аж на страниц за рублей. Да вот я клюнул, потому что на Ozon. Понял это, только уже получив книгу.
Описал свои впечатления здесь: Думаете, Вы получите ответ,заплатив эти деньги? Думаю, что, заплатив такие деньги, я получу другую книгу. Не могут же они ничего совсем не прислать. Эти господа всё могут. Даже если пришлют другую книгу, это ведь не прибавит ясности в дело, погонят по кругу, заболтают, и все дела. Кто этим промышляет, тот всё продумал не ходов вперёд, иначе бы не делал. Интернет пока что не имеет интерпола, в этом вся беда.
У меня вот другая беда: И предпринять нельзя ничего. А может быть, они просто собирают заявки? И какая книга соберет несколько тысяч заказов, ту быстренько и напишут. А заказчикам непопулярных книг вернут деньги Так ведь через год с деньгами уже вообще не расстаться - сроднились, слюбились: Там же говорится, что " [ Автор около 70 книг на самые разные темы.